The woman in the flowered dress may be called Primavera (a personification of Spring), with Flora the figure pursued by Zephyrus. Such puns for the Medici, and in Venus and Mars the Vespucci, run through all Botticelli's mythological paintings. Simonetta was the aunt of Lorenzo's bride Semirande. ability to defend the grove as its guardian is further underlined by the conspicuous nature with which his sword is displayed, a symbol that he is capable of driving away enemies at any time. [64] Since 1919, it has hung in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Mercury's [36][37] Venus' hand gesture of welcome, probably directed to the viewer, is the same as that used by Mary to the Archangel Gabriel in contemporary paintings of the Annunciation. It is also the Garden of the Hesperides of classical myth, from which the golden apples used in the Judgement of Paris came; the Hellenistic Greeks had decided that these were citrus fruits, exotic to them. three-figure group on the right-hand side of the picture is thus the arrival of spring as portrayed by Ovid in his calendar. the Florentine city palace of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco, a cousin twice removed of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Primavera (Allegory of Spring) As mythology paintings entered into Renaissance art, Botticelli broke new ground with his work. these paintings, if also without doubt the most puzzling and most discussed among them, is The Primavera, the exact meaning of which remains unclear to this day. É também, segundo a publicação "Botticelli, Primavera" (1998), uma das pinturas mais faladas, … For a long time it was assumed that the picture had This Sandro Botticelli Primavera meaning Spring, is a reproduction fine art print from the original large panel painting in tempera paint by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli made in the late 1470s or early 1480s (datings vary). At the extreme left Mercury, clothed in red with a sword and a helmet, raises his caduceus or wooden rod towards some wispy gray clouds. [1] The overall appearance, and size, of the painting is similar to that of the millefleur ("thousand flower") Flemish tapestries that were popular decorations for palaces at the time. However, this supposition has been disproved by recent studies. He is powerfully filling his cheeks, so as to pour out his warm breezes. It has been described as "one of the most written about, and most controversial paintings in the world",[1] and also "one of the most popular paintings in Western art". to overtake her. [33][34] One scholar suggested in 2011 that the central figure is not Venus at all, but Persephone. Mistress of this grove, Venus has fallen back a little, as if wishing to give her retinue the opportunity [47], Another inspiration for the painting seems to have been the poem by Lucretius "De rerum natura", which includes the lines, "Spring-time and Venus come, and Venus' boy, / The winged harbinger, steps on before, / And hard on Zephyr's foot-prints Mother Flora, / Sprinkling the ways before them, filleth all / With colors and with odors excellent."[48][49][50]. Venus, Goddess of Love, appears in the middle of an orange [30] Chastity looks towards Mercury, and some interpretations, especially those identifying the figures as modelled on actual individuals, see this couple as one to match Chloris and Zephyrus on the other side of the painting. "[63], Whenever this painting and the Birth of Venus were united at Castello, they have remained together ever since. Rather oddly, Vasari says both paintings contained female nudes, which is not strictly the case here. From Chloris' name the colour may be guessed to have been green – the Greek word for green is khloros, the root of words like chlorophyll – and may be why Botticeli painted Zephyr in shades of bluish-green. A further inventory of 1503 records that the Primavera had a large white frame. This was given the highest value of the three paintings, at 180 lire. All Rights Reserved. Her focus is on Mercury, who himself gazes beyond the canvas at what many believe hung as the companion piece to Primavera: Pallas and the Centaur, in which "love oriented towards knowledge" (embodied by Pallas Athena) proves triumphant over lust (symbolized by the centaur). "[7] Chloris the nymph overlaps Flora, the goddess she transforms into. According to Hesiod, Venus had been born of the sea after the semen of Uranus had fallen upon the waters. Most commentators concur that the painting which depicts figures in a garden is symbolic to the lush spring growth. While art historians consider Botticelli to have been an expert at using line, he was also adept at using color. The latter is reaching with her hand into her gathered-up dress, in order to strew the abundance of roses collected therein throughout paintings hung in the room, namely a Virgin and Child by an unknown painter and Botticelli's Pallas and the Centaur, placed over the door as a sopraporta. The orange trees come together over Venus' head to form a semicircular arch; halo-like, it surrounds the Mercury was the god of medicine and "doctors", medici in Italian. It is also a very publicized and debated work of art in the world. This wonderful and famous work of art by great Botticelli was painted for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici, a cousin of Lorenzo the Magnificent.The Medici was a very important Florentine banking family and later royal house of Tuscany. Collection of the Uffizi Gallery. Lightbown, 126–140; Ettlingers, 122–124; Dempsey, Wind, 116–117. As indicated by the picture's title - itself known to have been in use by the 16th century - Primavera represents the arrival and celebration of Spring. He lived all his life in the same neighbourhood of Florence, with probably his only significant time elsewhere the months he spent painting in Pisa in 1474 and the Sistine Chapel in Rome in 1481–82. We will see that all three However, Zephyrus' intentions are revealed as being less peaceful than Poliziano describes them. Created in 1482 and sometimes called the Allegory of Spring, the Primavera, Italian for spring, was commissioned by the Medici family. [43], Other specific elements may have been derived from a poem by Poliziano. The Primavera was painted by Italian artist Sandro Botticelli in c. 1482. Before the inventory was known it was usually believed that both paintings were made for the villa, probably soon after it was acquired in 1477, either commissioned by Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco or perhaps given to him by his older cousin and guardian Lorenzo de' Medici. La Primavera (Spring) Sandro Botticelli 1481 - 1482. It shows nine figures, all based on a mythological text. since we can now understand them as representing two separate moments in Ovid's narrative and thus occurring at different points in time. Page of Primavera by BOTTICELLI, Sandro in the Web Gallery of Art, a searchable image collection and database of European painting, sculpture and architecture (200-1900) BOTTICELLI, Sandro (b. We are concerned here with the philosophical poem "De Rerum Natura" by Lucretius, the classical poet and philosopher, who describes the awakening of sensual, physical love within the context of the arrival A Primavera, também conhecido como Alegoria da Primavera, é um quadro do pintor renascentista Sandro Botticelli.A pintura utiliza a técnica de têmpera sobre madeira. [21] A more positive, Neoplatonist view of the clouds is that they are "the benificent veils through which the splendour of transcendent truth may reach the beholder without destroying him. [23] According to Claudian, no clouds were allowed there. Together with other mythological and allegorical paintings, it was created for Lorenzo di Piero Francesco’s newly bought villa at Castello. Coming ashore in a shell she had clothed her nakedness in myrtle, and so the plant became sacred to her. Commissioned by Lorenzo and Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, cousins of Lorenzo il Magnifico, in 1498 this painting was in their florentine residence. Sandro Botticelli was born Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. [60], Another older theory, assuming an early date, suggests the older Lorenzo commissioned the portrait to celebrate the birth of his nephew Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici (who later became Pope), but changed his mind after the assassination of Giulo's father, his brother Giuliano in 1478, having it instead completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco. Where there is a plethora of literary sources, most of them probably not known directly by Botticelli, or set out for him by advisors, the visual sources are a different matter: But where, in the visual rather than the literary sense, did the vision come from? They were the cousins of Lorenzo de' Medici ("Lorenzo il Magnifico"), who was effectively the ruler of Florence, and after their father's early death had been his wards. The man on the far left is Mercury and he separates the clouds so that spring may come. The young Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco will doubtless have heard via this man of Botticelli, who was to become his preferred painter. [5] As depictions of subjects from classical mythology on a very large scale, they were virtually unprecedented in Western art since classical antiquity.[6]. During the Italian campaign of World War Two, the picture was moved to Montegufoni Castle about ten miles south west of Florence to protect it from wartime bombing. Sandro Botticelli’s Primavera is the painting which sparked my interest in Art History so I felt it fitting that this was the first featured masterpiece on my website. View in Street View. is using it to drive away some clouds which are threatening to force their way into Venus' garden. He is pursuing a nymph clad in transparent garments, who is turning around fearfully to look at him. According to the inventory, two further [44] As Poliziano's poem, "Rusticus", was published in 1483 and the painting is generally held to have been completed by around 1482,[1][45] some scholars have argued that the influence was reversed,[46] bearing in mind that Poliziano is generally thought to have helped with devising the allegory in the painting. Ettlingers, 118–119 gives a spirited quick summary, Wind, 113–114, 126–127; Ettlingers, 129. [20] As well as being part of a sequence over the season, Mercury in dispelling the clouds is acting as the guard of the garden, partly explaining his military dress and his facing out of the picture space. The movement of the composition is from right to left, so following that direction the standard identification of the figures is: at far right "Zephyrus, the biting wind of March, kidnaps and possesses the nymph Chloris, whom he later marries and transforms into a deity; she becomes the goddess of Spring, eternal bearer of life, and is scattering roses on the ground. Primavera. According to a recently discovered inventory, in 1499 the painting could be found in The subject matter of the After the death of his father, this man grew up in the care of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who designated Giorgio Antonio Vespucci, Botticelli's neighbour and greatest admirer, as one of his charge's mingling with those lavishly adorning the robe of the woman pacing along next to her. Venus appears in her garden, which Angelo Poliziano, the Medici court poet, portrayed in his verse as the place of eternal spring and peace. The tondo is now unidentified, but is a type of painting especially associated with Botticelli. [13] It is now known that in the setting for which the painting was designed the bottom was about at eye level, or slightly above it, partly explaining "the gently rising plane" on which the figures stand. Vasari's "recollection that the picture 'signifies spring' (, The Story of Nastagio Degli Onesti, part one, Venus and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman, A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts, Madonna of the Rosegarden (Madonna del Roseto), Madonna of the Magnificat (Madonna del Magnificat), Madonna of the Pomegranate (Madonna della Melagrana), Madonna Adoring the Child with Five Angels, Virgin and Child with the Infant St. John the Baptist, The Virgin and Child with Three Angels (Madonna del Padiglione), Portrait of a Man with a Medal of Cosimo the Elder, Portrait of a Young Man holding a Medallion, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Primavera_(Botticelli)&oldid=1000193342, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 01:44. Flora and Venus look out at the viewer, the Cupid is blindfolded, and Mercury has turned his back on the others, and looks up at the clouds. His acquired named came from his brother who was known as Botticelli… The Three Graces are sisters, and traditionally accompany Venus. Since 1919 the painting has been part of the collection of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. The sensual, violent nature of Zephyrus, aflame with passion, something so alien to Poliziano's poem, may be encountered in a further written source, one which will similarly have served as a model for Botticelli's Primavera, also known as Allegory of Spring, is a tempera panel painting by Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli. During the 1480s and ’90s, as Renaissance artists grew in prominence, Botticelli produced two of his most famous works: Primavera (ca.